The Most Popular Programming Languages

Programs, applications, and video games are written in programming languages. There are many of these languages ​​and the main criterion for using each of them is the ease of operation and demand in the market. There are no exact statistics on programming languages, but they are estimated based on user requests from search engines. In this article, we will consider the most popular programming languages ​​and general IT trends.

What programming languages ​​are popular now and why

The popularity of programming languages ​​is subjective, since it is impossible to track the number of programmers using a particular language. Most often, the rating is formed on the basis of queries from search engines. Consider 15 well-known programming languages.


Open source cross-platform programming language. Visually understandable interface and syntax – even a beginner programmer can figure it out. Today there are a large number of Python libraries with objects designed to solve common problems. Mobile applications, video games and programs are developed in this language. For example, social networks Youtube and Instagram, Civilization and World of Tanks games, Autodesk are written on it. Professionals with knowledge of Python are in great demand in the market, especially in the field of Data Science.


This versatile cross-platform language is popular with a large number of developers. Games and programs are written using Java libraries of ready-made objects. Despite the fact that Kotlin is more often used to create mobile applications, Java is used to create servers. Don’t confuse Java and JavaScript – they are different programming languages.


JavaScript (JS) is used to write mobile and desktop applications that run through a browser, and are rarely used for complex software. JS is a text file with source code that is embedded in the page and makes it interactive. For example, the language shows pop-up information to the user without reloading the page.

C and C ++

C ++ is considered the most popular programming language. Operating systems, programs, drivers, applications and games are written on it. The C language is the predecessor to C ++ and they have similar syntax. Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS and Android are written in C and C ++. There are free and commercial C ++ implementations that provide many templates, algorithms, and regular expressions in libraries that make the work of programmers easier.

C Sharp

Microsoft came up with the C # language for building Windows-based applications. C # syntax is similar to Java and C ++, and this trend is still in demand in PC video games. The Unity platform is written in this language, in which you can create 2D, 3D, and VR games and applications.


PHP is used for programming dynamic sites and web applications. The language is supported by many hosting providers, as well as Facebook, Yahoo !, and Wikipedia. From time to time, developers release new versions of PHP, which can be downloaded from the official website.


R is a programming language for graphics, statistical computing, and analytics. Beginners are not advised to learn this language due to its complexity. R works on Windows, macOS, and Linux. Common in scientific research, neural networks, and modeling.


Swift is developed by Apple and is focused on working with MacOs and Linux. The language can also be learned by beginners – it is open source and easy to learn and use. Mozilla Firefox, WordPress, SoundCloud, and many mobile games are written in Swift.


The language has a narrow specialization in the scientific and engineering environment. Matlab is suitable for technical computing, visualization, graphics processing, and algorithms. It is used with Python, Java, C ++, and other programming languages.


A cross-platform language for building desktop and mobile applications. The syntax uses elements of the Java, JS, C #, and C ++ languages. If you already know Java, learn Kotlin quickly – it was originally designed as an improved Java replacement.


SQL is used to work with databases. This language is easy to learn and is used by developers, testers, and database administrators. SQL is a highly specialized programming language that needs to be learned with other languages.


Suitable for starting a career in information technology. A language with a convenient and understandable syntax works in all operating systems. Ruby developers constantly publish new versions on the official site and fix bugs in the language.


Go is open source, which makes it easy to develop efficient and reliable software. The language is used for web applications and APIs. Compatible with many operating systems: Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS, Android. The language has flexibility and performance and is seen as a replacement for C ++.


Objective-C was developed by Apple, so it is more commonly used for macOS and iOS. Knowledge of the language is considered an additional programming skill since Objective-C is deprecated. New versions of iOS already use the Swift language.


Websites are written on the basis of HTML and CSS. Layouts, web designers and front-end developers must know them. HTML and CSS define the design of the site pages and each element is displayed with a specific tag. Both languages ​​are easy to learn and have many libraries where you can find any tag and check their relevance.

Rating of programming languages ​​in 2021

There are five popular rankings of programming languages. Let’s consider each in detail.


The Tiobe Index measures the popularity of a language based on the number of searches. For a monthly ranked list, data is taken from search engines and social networks. Such a rating of the popularity of programming languages ​​shows the manifestation of interest in a particular language among users. One of the main selection criteria is the presence of a page on Wikipedia. There are two leaders in the top 2021 – Java and Python. Java ranks third, followed by C ++ and C #.

programming languages


PYPL has a similar method of analysis to TIOBE, but PYPL collects statistics on queries in Google and does not rank results by country. Most often, the first position is taken by Python, the second by Java, and the third by JavaScript. According to this ranking, Python is developing rapidly, and Java is losing interest among developers over time.

programming languages rank


GitHub counts the number of published sources, so many scripting platforms are more often in the lead in the list. The complexity of the language does not affect the position taken. GitHub publishes a report by year: in 2020, Python took the first place in honor, followed by Java and JS, C and C + were closed in the top five.

Stack Overflow

Stack Overflow is ranking based on developer surveys. The more questions a language raises among users, the more in demand it is. JavaScript or Python are more often in the lead.

programming languages ranking


The portal analyzes data from Stack Overflow and GitHub statistics, publishing them into a single report. In this ranking, the leaders are constantly changing their positions, but JavaScript, Java, and Python remain in their places.

In 2021, the first three places in the top 20 were taken by JavaScript, Python, and Java.

Which languages ​​are losing relevance

The developers have come up with many programming languages, the demand for which changes every year. For example, the languages ​​Objective-C, C and Perl are losing their relevance due to falling demand for them in the labor market. And programmers themselves refuse Fortran and Haskell.

General trends in the IT-sphere

Today, large companies are looking for experienced developers of desktop programs and mobile applications. The complication of the syntax of languages, constant updates, and operational maintenance require writing program code as readable as possible for all participants in the project. Accuracy, simplicity of design, and readability of the code are the demanded skills of a professional.

There is a growing need to advance machine learning and input processing. The number of services for face recognition and automatic translation of audio format into text is increasing. All these services are written using programming languages.

TOP 3 Most Popular Programming Languages ​​- Python, Java, JavaScript. Their knowledge opens the way to the world of programming.

What is the bottom line?

The IT sphere always needs qualified programmers. There are many programming languages ​​and they should be chosen based on the demand in the market, functionality, and ease of operation. All ratings show the subjective popularity of languages, but a beginner can push off from this data and make the right choice.

Priyanka Sharma
Priyanka Sharma
I am Priyanka, currently dedicating myself entirely to writing for In my role as a writer, I am committed to producing content of exceptional quality and collaborate closely with the ONH Team to ensure the delivery of outstanding material. Outside of work, my hobbies include creating humorous videos for my Instagram, YouTube, and Facebook channels.

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